Problems of Nuclear Pollution in Some Regions of Russia

B. F. Myasoedov

Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 19,
Moscow, 117975 Russia

Received November 22, 1996

Abstract—This paper addresses the main sources of the influx of radionuclides to the biosphere: nuclear tests,
plutonium production for military purposes, reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel, nuclear power plants and,
especially, the numerous accidents at them, as well as disposal of nuclear waste. The radiological situation in
the territories near the Mayak Industrial Association, Mining and Chemical Plant, and the Siberian Plant is dis-
cussed at length. The possibilities of modern radiochemistry (fractionation of high-level nuclear waste in order
to separate long-lived -nuclides of neptunium, plutonium, and americium with bidentate neutral phosphorus-
bearing compounds; highly efficient methods of extraction, concentration, and separation of actinides; and
high-sensitivity, precise methods of their detection, including coulometry, luminescence, and radiometry) are
considered in an effort to find solutions to the problems of nuclear pollution of the environment.